Kharkiv Historical Museum Sumtsova Kharkiv Historical Museum Sumtsova Kharkiv Historical Museum Sumtsova Kharkiv Historical Museum Sumtsova Kharkiv Historical Museum Sumtsova Kharkiv Historical Museum Sumtsova Kharkiv Historical Museum Sumtsova Kharkiv Historical Museum Sumtsova Kharkiv Historical Museum Sumtsova Kharkiv Historical Museum Sumtsova Kharkiv Historical Museum Sumtsova Kharkiv Historical Museum Sumtsova Kharkiv Historical Museum Sumtsova Kharkiv Historical Museum Sumtsova Kharkiv Historical Museum Sumtsova Kharkiv Historical Museum Sumtsova Kharkiv Historical Museum Sumtsova Kharkiv Historical Museum Sumtsova Kharkiv Historical Museum Sumtsova Kharkiv Historical Museum Sumtsova Kharkiv Historical Museum Sumtsova
Kharkov Historical Museum named after M.F. Sumtsova was founded in January 1920. Briefly speaking about the outstanding personality of Nikolai Fedorovich Sumtsov, it is worth noting that this outstanding scientist, ethnographer and historian stood at the origins of the modern museum, which traces its pedigree from the Museum of Sloboda Ukraine named after G.S. Pans. Europeans Nikolai Sumtsov is known as a researcher of folk life. And Kharkovites know him as the first director of the museum in 1920-1922, who personally developed the basic principles of the institution, and now lie at the heart of the museum.

Now the Historical Museum presents the following exhibits:
- on the ground floor: The history of the Sloboda region and Kharkov region from ancient times to the beginning of the 20th century;
- on the second floor: "The greatness of the people's heroic deed", the participation of Kharkov in the Second World War;
- on the third floor: "Kharkiv region from restoration to perestroika 1943 - 1991", "Kaleidoscope of museum treasures in the measurement of time", "Traditions in education."

The museum has a collection of 335,000 exhibits. If we talk about changing the concept of expositions, now there is almost no chronology, but there are thematic modules that will vary in time and content. Museum staff hope in the next, 2021, to make the same wide exhibition about Kharkov in 1917 - 1991. Unfortunately, a large number of items were lost when the museum was evacuated during the Second World War in the city of Ufa. The train on which museum items were transported was bombed, so many items and documentation were destroyed. Also, many museum items were transferred to other museums in Ukraine in the 1930s.

Slobozhane
To its 100th anniversary, Kharkiv Historical Museum. M.F. Sumtsova presented completely new exhibitions to the Kharkiv and city guests. They differ from those presented earlier by the specifics of the presentation of the material and the work itself. Throughout the year, museum staff monitored wishes and took into account what visitors would like to see in the museum. Many exhibits were changed, and samples were also presented that have never been exhibited in the museum. They have the signature stamp of "extremely valuable exhibits."

The first floor was opened by the Slobozhane exposition - the history of the Sloboda Territory and the Kharkiv region from ancient times to the beginning of the 20th century. This is the main exposition of the museum. The exposition opens with the lower jaw of a mammoth, the first tools and incisors - then knives. The figures show the harpoon and methods for its manufacture from improvised materials. You can also see the reconstruction of the burials of the Bronze Age. The skeleton located in the first window, located in the position of the embryo. This is due to the fact that our ancestors adhered to the fact that, as a person was in the womb, they laid him in the ground, since the land was associated primarily with the mother. In the grave you can see the grave goods: a knife, dishes, an ax, and where the ancient people believed that these things might be needed by the dead in the afterlife. The mounds of the Bronze Age are still located on the territory of Kharkiv and Kharkiv. The most famous case when during the construction of the Saltovsky tram depot in the city of Kharkov 2 bronze and 3 Scythian barrows were excavated.

In the window you can also see amber beads, a neck bronze hryvnia, chains, bracelets, which were used as jewelry. This is a burial place, which scientists date to 5 tbsp. BC, were accidentally found in the Kharkov region in 1996.

With the advent of the Proto-Bulgarians, Khazars, proto-products and Slavs in the 7th century AD, the Saltovsk archeological culture was created. This name was formed by the fact that for the first time artifacts of this culture were found near the village of Verkhny Saltov, near Kharkov. You can see silver mirrors and a large number of amulets of Saltov women. Saltovtsy were very skilled warriors, so in another window you can see sabers, axes, combat knives, minting, a warrior’s combat belt and horse harness elements.

In the days of Kievan Rus, the city of Donets was located on the territory of modern Kharkov, so the next exposition tells about things that were found in those days. You can see the hryvnia - silver bullion, which at that time served as money. The image of such a hryvnia can still be seen in the upper left corner of the paper Ukrainian hryvnia.

Along with the unique swords of the times of Kievan Rus. At that time, such swords, with a silver hilt, could only afford a prince or a noble warrior. There is even a version that this sword belonged to Prince Igor of Kiev, who was in this place in a campaign against the Polovtsy, as it is described in the annals of "The Word about Igor's Regiment". Also, various weapons are presented in the windows, namely a one-and-a-half-ceremonial sword, scimitars - the weapons of the Turkish Janissaries, a saber of the Radziwill clan, a saber of a ship, an oriental dagger and precious coins of that time.

The following interactive zone tells about the times of the National Liberation Struggle of the Ukrainian people, the so-called Khmelnichchina, period 1648-1657. In those years, the Cossacks fought against the Polish winged hussars, and in the window you can see the armor of the hussar pierced - this is officer Kerasa. Also presented is a fragment of a saber, which was made in then Persia, and then brought to Ukraine. All Cossack sabers were stored in one copy, but they were not made in one. We can say that this saber is unique, since it is reliably known that 2 sabers from the party have survived. The other is stored in Russia, namely Krasnodar, where Catherine II relocated to the Cossacks. The Kharkov saber was found on the site of the Chortlinsky Zaporizhzhya Sich.

The Kharkov Museum also exhibited a unique exhibit, which is no longer in any museum in Ukraine - the Hetman flag. The flag was made in 1689 and presented to the hetman of the Left-Bank Ukraine Ivan Mazepa. After Mazepa went to war on Peter the Great and lost it, the flag was handed over to the next hetman, Daniel the Apostle. In the world of such hetman flags, there are two more - in Russia and Sweden (Stockholm). Above the display case, you can see a graphic reconstruction of the flag, and you can also see how it looked when it was just made. To date, only 50 percent of the elements of the flag have been preserved and only after the restoration of 2018 can it be seen in the museum.

Cossacks were an inspiring force for Cossack baroque. Among museum artifacts you can see the holy book of the Gospel, since the time of Ivan Mazepa. The book was made in 1707 in the Kiev Pechersk Lavra with the funds of the Ukrainian hetman Ivan Mazepa. After its manufacture, the hetman himself presented the Holy Scripture to the Intercession Monastery, which is located in Kharkov. But, already in 1709, Ivan Mazepa went against the Russian Empire and, on the orders of Peter the Great, anathema was declared in the churches. After that, from the first pages of this book, where there was gratitude to Mazepa, the clergy were forced to wipe his name. This page can now be seen open in the book. Next to the book is a silver with gilding salary for this gospel, which weighs about 20 kg.

The next exposition presents typical clothing of a Cossack colonel during the division of Kharkiv into shelves. Zhupan with a red expensive fabric, pernach - a symbol of power, a silver belt and coins "scales."

Grigory Skovoroda - a native of Kharkov region with a world name
A special figure in the history of Slobozhanshchina and the museum is Grigory Skovoroda - a famous Ukrainian poet, philosopher and musician. Here you can see the area dedicated to the life and work of the phalosopher. An outstanding poet lived half his life in Slobozhanshchina, in particular, Kharkov. In general, the poet did not like the city, but Kharkov considered it to be the best city, therefore it was in Kharkov that he wrote his famous work "Kharkov Fables". For a long time G. Skovoroda also taught at the Kharkov College.

Interactivity
Interactivity is the main feature of the updated museum exposition. On the ground floor of the museum there is an old Ukrainian hut. The reconstruction of the Sloboda house gives us an idea of ​​how people lived in the early Middle Ages on the territory of Slobozhanshchina, in particular, it shows the arrangement of the house.

When a person entered the house, according to tradition, there was always a stove on the left. The people said: "A good thing is to bake in the house." The stove gave heat, they slept on the stove, they cooked food in the stove, they even believed that a house uncle-brownie lives inside. The space around the oven served as a kitchen. On the right side, at the entrance to the house you can see a corner with a board for applying images and the ruble - an iron of the time. There is an opportunity to inspect interior items: Misnik, plank floor, lullaby, bandura, kitchen utensils and a bench with chairs where you can sit.

On the interactive monitor, visitors have the opportunity to find out interesting information about the life of Ukrainians in those days, listen to Ukrainian songs, and watch cartoons. Nearby you can see penance - a festive or red corner. By tradition, he was always oriented to the east. This corner was decorated with church icons and towels. The recreation area, where the wooden flooring belonged, was the floor, then the bed. When the family was large, then all the children slept there together.

Among other exhibits, you can see 2 huge painted chests. If the chest was already painted in the house, this meant that a girl was living in the house, and she was soon to get married. A woman's dowry was collected in a chest. If in an ordinary room there was a maximum of one such chest, then two are presented here, in them you can find antiques that Kharkov citizens brought to the museum.

The house also features an old loom, you can sit down and try to weave a kotz or rushnyk. And all because earlier in Kharkov co-kingdom was popular - weaving of long-pile carpets, which were sold throughout Ukraine and abroad.

Diorama
It is believed that Kharkov was founded when 550 Cossacks came here, headed by the ataman Ivan Krivoshlyk. Then they built a large wooden fortress and called it Kharkov. On the diorama you can see how Kharkov looked in the middle of the 17th century. It was a large Cossack fortress with guns around the perimeter.
19th century - “Golden period” in the history of Kharkov.

University

Higher education in Kharkov appeared in 1805. Kharkov Imperial University was opened on the initiative of Vasily Karazin - the guide of the Kharkov nobility. One of the expositions takes the visitor to the library of Kharkov University and the museum at this University. On the interactive panel you can see additional materials about Kharkov of the 19th century. Maps of the city of Kharkov at that time are also popular.

Architecture

In the 19th century, many architects worked in the city, but Alexey Beketov was outstanding. He designed over 40 buildings in Kharkov province. The museum recreated his workplace, with drawings and writing instruments. The exposition is represented by a typewriter, where you can print a letter yourself.
Another exposition shows how the room of wealthy Kharkiv looked. A sideboard in the Empire style, a piano of the late 19th century and paintings by Sergei Vasilkovsky is presented. Things and furniture for this exposition - the city living room, were transferred from the property of the Vasilkovsky, Alchevsky and Beketov families. Here you can listen to the family ties of these families, as well as that they were all pioneers, each in their own field. Moreover, this living room has an interactive panel in the picture frame, which shows famous paintings by prominent artists of Slobozhanshchina.

Chocolate king

Georges Bormann was a German who first lived in the capital of the Russian Empire, St. Petersburg, and then moved to Kharkov. In Kharkov, he built his second factory for the production of sweets, and it was in this city that he became the unspoken "Chocolate King of the Russian Empire." In the exposition, you can see special containers with the logo of J. Bormann, where sweets were stored in those days and find out more information about him.

Money

In Kharkov, as in a real European city, banks, insurance and credit companies opened. In the corresponding exhibition you can look at the money of that time. You can also look at the features of the money of the late 19th century. Say, on a bill of 5 rubles you can see five sticks that were drawn for people without education, and then they made up the majority of the province’s population.

South edge

At that time, Kharkiv learned news from newspapers. The most popular newspaper at that time was the newspaper Southern Land. In the museum you can see a marble tablet, which hung on the building of the publisher. When the accident of the imperial train happened in 1888, it was the editors of this newspaper who were the first to take unique photographs of this event. The same photographs, as well as the then camera, can be seen in the display window.

The first Kharkov nationalist
In 1899, the famous lawyer Nikolai Mikhnovsky moved to Kharkov. At one time, he was the first to start his own business, namely, a dialogue with a Ukrainian judge. Subsequently, in 1900, in front of Kharkov students, he gave a lecture, "Independent Ukraine." In it, he drew attention to the then “slave state” within the Russian Empire, as well as the need to fight for an independent Ukraine “from the Caucasus Mountains to the Caucasus Mountains.” This year, the text of this lecture was printed in Lviv, in a separate brochure entitled “ Independent Ukraine "and began to spread throughout Ukraine. In a separate exhibition you can learn about the achievements of the first ideologist of Ukrainian nationalism in Kharkov.

The motto of the modern museum is closer to visitors.

For kids there is a special one where they can play, draw and put together a puzzle. At the end of the exposition, a children's zone is planned. It will be possible to either leave the museum’s wishes on a flipchart or on a paper palm in it. The museum has many photo zones, for example, a fireplace with antique furniture or an image of a gentleman and young ladies of the 19th century. The museum is trying to become a family institution. You can come to the museum for your birthday or wedding and take unforgettable photos of the whole family.

How to get there:
- by metro, the museum is located near the metro station "Constitution Square" \ "Historical Museum".

Translated by: Yurii Voloshyn
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