Chernihiv is one of the oldest cities in Eastern Europe, the first written mention of which dates back to 907. Historians believe that the city is at least 1300 years old. During the Old Russian era, Chernihiv developed dynamically, being the capital of a large and powerful principality. It was here in the first half of the 11th century that the oldest temple in the territory of Kievan Rus was preserved by the brother of Yaroslav the Wise, Prince Mstislav the Brave, and has survived to this day - the Savior Cathedral. In the 12th - early 13th centuries the lands of the Chernihiv principality extended far to the north, east and south, to the present Moscow region and Tmutarakani (present Krasnodar region) on the Black Sea. The population of the city was about 20-25 thousand people, so Chernihiv was one of the largest cities of Europe at the time, the center of crafts, trade, cultural and church life, and the princes of Chernihiv belonged to the highest political elite.
In 1239 the city was destroyed by the Mongol-Tatars, in the middle of the 16th century Chernihiv became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, later became part of Muscovy, and in 1618 came under the power of the Commonwealth. In 1623 it received the Magdeburg Law. The second in the history of Chernihiv begins the period of economic and cultural uplift. In the last third of the 17th century - at the beginning of the 18th century, with the help of Ivan Mazepa, the city became famous as a center of enlightenment.
After the liquidation of the hetmanhood, Chernihiv became the center of the governorship, and in 1802 - the Chernihiv province. At the turn of the 19th - 20th centuries, Chernihiv again gained the glory of one of the centers of Ukrainian culture. Here lived, created, worked Grigory Verevka, Mikhail Kotsubinsky, Sofia Rusova, Pavel Tychina and other artists. Visited the city of Shevchenko, Gogol, Pushkin, Glinka ti Lysenko.
During the Second World War, the city was destroyed, and after its reconstruction, although its appearance changed, Chernihiv did not lose its special historical character. Now it is a regional center with a population of about 300 thousand people.
Chernihiv has preserved 6 ancient Russian monuments of the pre-Mongol era. The ancient center is Val (Ditynets). It was here that the city emerged and developed. On Val there is one of the oldest surviving stone temple of the day of Russia - the Transfiguration Cathedral (11th c.). Next to it is the tomb of Borysoglibsky Cathedral (12th century), now a museum. The Chernihiv College (18th c.), Cast-iron guns and other architectural and historical sites are also located in the territory of Vala.
At the entrance to Chernihiv on the hill, there is a beautiful Catherine Church (18th century). They are almost unchanged to this day. To the west of the historic center of Chernihiv are the slopes of the Boldy Mountains (an ancient pagan temple with burial mounds), where a unique mound complex is preserved - the largest necropolis in Eastern Europe from 9 to 11 centuries. There is also a famous underground construction in the world - the Anthony Caves. They were started in 1069 by the renowned ecclesiastical figure of the Ancient Rus era, Rev. Anthony Pechersky. Now the caves are a two-story underground complex about 350 meters long. They have unusual energy and mysteries that have yet to be solved.
Not far from Red Square is the Friday Church (late 12th c.). It Plays the highest stage in the development of architecture in. According to legend, very popular with the locals, one of the walls of the temple is embedded with stone, touching which you can make a wish.
In 1695 Trinity Cathedral was consecrated. It houses the Orthodox shrines - the relics of St. Feodosius Chernihiv, St. Lawrence, St. Filaret, a part of the relics of Michael and Feodor and some of the Kiev-Pechersk saints.
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