On the southern outskirts of Kharkiv, on the right bank of the river Udi is an interesting archaeological place - Donets settlement (travel - by train to the station Karachevka or through Simferopol highway to Pokotilovka).
Even in the XIX century. historians Karamzin and Passek suggested that Donetsk settlement represents the remains of the chronicle of the city Donets. The town was first mentioned in the Donets Ipatiev Chronicle in 1185 in connection with the story of the unsuccessful campaign of Novgorod-Seversky Prince Igor's against Polovtsy. Rusichi defeated and Prince Igor, his brother and son were captured. After fleeing, the prince first 11 days on horseback and then on foot to get from the Polovtsian vezh to the ancient Russian city of Donets. Also this city is mentioned in "Lay of Igor's Campaign".
The first archaeological materials were obtained by V.A. Gorodtsov during excavations that began here in preparation for the XII Archaeological Congress in 1902 further archaeological expeditions have allowed fully to investigate this multi-layered monument, where there are deposits of various archaeological cultures.
In the lower layers of the settlement were found fragments of pottery, flint knives, arrowheads, fragments of polished stone axes pertaining to the Bronze Age. Above this layer is underlain Scythian items belonging, apparently, agricultural tribes melanhlenov. It was at this time - in the VI. BC. e. - There were built the first fortifications. In the VIII century. at this place arose early Slavic settlement, which developed primarily as a trade and craft center. In the tenth century it was attacked by the Pechenegs, but it was soon restored. Entering the time of Svyatoslav of Kievan Rus, the settlement became an important military and defensive point of gradually turned into the city Donets.
Donets was burned by the Mongols in 1239, but lives on this land is completely stopped. Some archaeological finds and references to Donetsk settlement that occur in later written sources - "paintings patrol points" of the Ivan IV and the "Book of the Big Drawing" in 1627 confirms that even in the XIV century there were some settlement. According to modern archaeologists, Donetsk settlement gradually grew in Kharkov and gave rise to the modern Kharkiv.
Donetsk fort occupies a narrow triangular cape on the right bere-gu district. Uda, which rises above the level of the river is 20 m. At this a legendary place and now we can see the remains of fortifications.
On the north side of the cape is protected by a moat and a large shaft, which is a continuation in the VIII-X centuries. They were simple wooden walls, and in X-XIII centuries. - More complex defensive walls with timbered towers. On the south side of Cape remains of three more small shafts with two deep ditches between them.
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